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To prevent cardiovascular disease and stay away from sudden death, the top 10 risk factors should be known


In most countries and regions around the world, cardiovascular disease is a threat to health and life"Number one killer".

In our country, the number of patients with cardiovascular disease isThe patients with chronic diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia can be seen everywhere, regardless of gender, age and age.


In recent years, news about sudden death of young people has emerged in endlessly. Sudden cardiac death is closely related to cardiovascular disease. The younger sudden death means the younger cardiovascular disease.

Sudden death and rejuvenation

In 2022, ByteDance, a 28 year old programmer, died suddenly. His wife had just been pregnant for two months, and every month, she had 21000 yuan of housing loans to pay

A few days ago, a medical doctor returned to his dormitory from the laboratory and died suddenly of sudden cardiac death37 years old;

Recently, the American Society for the Prevention of Heart Disease(ASPC) has summarized 10 precautions against common risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, which is very helpful to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

1. Unhealthy diet

"Saturated fatty acids" and "trans fatty acids" can increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and promote atherosclerosis. Trans fatty acids are most relevant to the increase of cardiovascular risk, so it is necessary to eat less foods containing such substances, such as roast duck, roast goose, cake, biscuits, artificial yellow oil, doughnuts, etc.


Eat less ultra-processed foods such as bread, cream cake, chocolate, etc. These foods will not only promote weight gain, but also increase the risk of postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, sympathetic nerve overexcitation, and hypercoagulability.

The best diet to prevent cardiovascular disease is Mediterranean diet andDASH diet. These two dietary patterns are mainly vegetables, fruits, whole grains, non-fat or low-fat dairy products, fish, poultry, lean meat, nuts, beans and fiber.

2. Lack of exercise

Lack of exercise is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular disease, which can directly or indirectly increase the risk of premature death10%。

It is recommended that healthy adults should at least150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise or 75 minutes of high intensity exercise. Even if the amount of exercise does not reach the recommended level, even if it is only a short time of light physical activity every day, it will also help to reduce cardiovascular risk.


For hypertension patients with obesity, diabetes and well controlled blood pressureThree times of resistance training is also necessary.

3. Abnormal blood lipids

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) is the main target of lipid therapy. A basic principle is that patients with the highest cardiovascular risk need the most active lipid management strategy. Hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 150 mg/dl) usually increases cardiovascular risk.

The normal range of low density lipoprotein cholesterol is1.53-3.12 mmol/L, if the measured LDL cholesterol is more than 3.12 mmol/L, it is called the increase of LDL cholesterol level, which will increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

4. diabetes

Diabetes is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular disease. people with diabetes are more likely to have cardiovascular abnormalities. Therefore, it is suggested that patients with diabetes actively control other common cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking.


For most patients with diabetes, the goal of hypoglycemic therapy is that HbA1c is less than7%, while avoiding hypoglycemia and large fluctuation of blood sugar. Long-term patients with a history of severe hypoglycemia, limited life expectancy, late microvascular or macrovascular complications, multiple complications, and difficult to reach the standard of blood glucose may need looser control objectives, such as HbA1c<8% or higher.

5. Hypertension

Hypertension is one of the risk factors of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, and arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation is the most common). Hypertension patients need to treat other cardiovascular risk factors more actively.


As long as hypotension treatment does not cause symptoms and signs of hypotension, hypotension can reduce cardiovascular risk.

Non-pharmaceutical non-invasive antihypertensive measures include: low-sodium diet (sodium intake<2300 mg/d), replace salt, take sufficient potassium, exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight. Men and women with hypertension should not drink more than 2 cups/week and 1 cup/week respectively.

6. Obesity

Obesity increases cardiovascular risk, and active weight loss can usually improve cardiovascular health.


Weight loss should not be blindly hungry or take weight loss pills. In theory, nutrition, sports, psychology and medicine should be combined, but for ordinary obese people, remember"Hold your mouth and step out".

7. Elderly and women

Different guidelines forThere are some differences in the cardiovascular disease prevention recommendations of people ≥ 75 years old. In general, the cardiovascular disease prevention strategies of the elderly should be "analyzed on a case-by-case basis" and follow the principle of individualization.

The onset of cardiovascular disease in women is usually later than that in menFor 10 years, however, this "heart protection" effect often disappears with the arrival of menopause or the diagnosis of diabetes, and also basically disappears in women with type 2 diabetes.


The cardiovascular risk of women with type 2 diabetes was significantly higher than that of men; The effect of secondary prevention with statin for women is the same as that for men, but women may be more prone to statin related diabetes and myalgia.

For women, obesity, lack of exerciseType 2 diabetes and smoking may have a greater impact on cardiovascular risk, so women should also actively manage these risk factors.

8. Thrombosis

The severity of thrombus mainly depends on the location, size, type of thrombus and the degree of vascular cavity obstruction, as well as the establishment of collateral circulation. For example, complete occlusion of cardio-cerebral or peripheral arteries can often lead to cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction and limb gangrene, which is a serious threat to life.

Patients with thrombus should get out of bed as soon as possible in order to recover their function as soon as possible when their condition is stable. In life, we should maintain a good and positive attitude, eat a healthy diet, and stop smoking and drinking. In addition, it is also necessary to strictly follow the doctor's instructions for medication and regular follow-up to clarify the recovery of the disease.

9. Renal insufficiency

A large number of patients with chronic kidney disease are finally killed by cardiovascular disease. The treatment of chronic kidney disease usually includes the management of major cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and smoking.

 For patients with chronic kidney disease with cardiovascular risk, in addition to limiting salt, superprocessed carbohydrates, monosaccharide, saturated fatty acids and selecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, total protein should also be limited. High-fiber fruits and vegetables rich in potassium should only be limited to patients with hypokalemia.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of chronic kidney disease, including regular physical activity.

10. Genetic factors

Affected by genetic factors or family history, this part of the population is more likely to be exposed toIn the "high level of LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol)", the probability of atherosclerosis is greatly increased.

proposalIndividuals and families with extremely high LDL-C were screened for familial hypercholesterolemia cascade.